In some cases, we don’t know. In other cases, we have estimates of the dates by which these technologies could become part of our operation which are set forth below, but these are just estimates and not firm guarantees. We’re focused on taking immediate action today to reduce emissions, and on investing in longer term bets that could reimagine how aviation works.Archer
In 2021, we announced an agreement to work with Archer to accelerate production of electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft that have the potential for future use as an “air taxi” in urban markets. These are not intended to replace United’s existing flights, but rather reduce vehicle traffic. Once the aircraft are in operation and have met United's operating and business requirements, United, together with Mesa Airlines, plans to acquire a fleet of up to 200 of these eVTOL aircraft. Archer plans to launch consumer eVTOL flights in 2024.Cemvita Factory
In 2021, United and UAV announced a collaboration with Houston-based biotech firm Cemvita Factory to commercialize the production of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) intended to be developed through a revolutionary new process using CO2 and synthetic microbes. We are very excited about the promise of this new technology, but unfortunately, we cannot provide an estimated timeframe for the commercialization of SAF through this process.Dimensional Energy
In 2022, United and UAV announced an investment in and commercial agreement with Dimensional Energy, where United agreed to purchase at least 300 million gallons of SAF over 20 years from Dimensional. We are very excited about the promise of this new technology, but similarly, we cannot provide an estimated timeframe for receiving SAF from Dimensional.Heart Aerospace
Heart Aerospace’s ES-19, a 19-seat electric aircraft with the potential to fly customers up to 250 miles, could enter the market as early as 2026. In addition to the UAV investment, United conditionally agreed to purchase 100 ES-19 aircraft, once they meet our safety, business and operating requirements. Once operational, the ES-19 would not be used for long-haul flights, but could operate on more than 100 of United's regional routes out of most of its hubs.ZeroAvia
Through our investment in ZeroAvia, we expect to buy up to 100 of the company’s zero-emission, 100% hydrogen-electric engines. Once they are fully developed and certified by regulators, these engines could be retrofit to existing United Express aircraft as early as 2028.